Economic and social importance of trees outside forests and forests - including their cultural significance, potential for enhanced livelihood benefits and the alleviation of poverty;
Non timber forest products and the various ecosystem services derived from trees outside forests and forests, at various spatial scales;
The management of forests and trees outside forests, for enhanced livelihood benefits - including indigenous tree and forest management systems;
The role of trees
outside forests and forests in a context of change, including mitigation
of and adaptation to, climate change;
Policies and institutional issues related to rural development forestry and agroforestry, including policy implementation.